Heutzutage ist ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) der „Standard-Ordnungsrahmen“ im Bereich IT-Servicemanagement, wobei selbst Nicht-IT-Unternehmen das Framework einsetzen, um die Kommunikation im Unternehmen und zu anderen Unternehmen zu standardisieren. Die Einführung oder auch die Weiterentwicklung von ITIL in Unternehmen kann aber auch mit erheblichen Risiken verbunden sein, da für eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung und Zertifizierung alle Prozesse implementiert sein sollten. Reifegradmodelle sind hierbei hilfreiche Werkzeuge, um einzelne Prozesse zu bewerten, aber auch um zu erkennen, welche Prozesse anschließend eingeführt werden müssen. In dieser Arbeit untersuche ich zum einen die vorhandenen Modelle und erörtere sie. Daran anschließend versuche ich ein Vorgehensmodell zu entwickeln, welches alle von mir untersuchten Reifegradbewertungen strukturiert abbildet.
Aus rechtlicher Sicht ist die E-Mail-Aufbewahrung für Unternehmen ein komplexes Querschnittsthema. Zum einen ist dies dadurch begründet, dass es kein Gesetz gibt, das sich ausschließlich mit der E-Mail-Aufbewahrung im Unternehmen befasst, zum anderen setzt sich die einschlägige Rechtslage aus unterschiedlichen Rechtsgebieten zusammen. Der Arbeitgeber muss einerseits gesetzliche Aufbewahrungspflichten einhalten, andererseits datenschutzrechtliche Reglungen zugunsten der Beschäftigten beachten. Dieses Spannungsverhältnis untersucht die vorliegende Seminararbeit aus datenschutzrechtlicher Perspektive und verfolgt dabei das Ziel, Unternehmen einen Überblick über die E-Mail-Aufbewahrung zu verschaffen sowie deren Grenzen aufzuzeigen. Hierzu wurde die folgende Forschungsfrage formuliert: Unter welchen Voraussetzungen darf eine E-Mail-Aufbewahrung durch das Unternehmen datenschutzrechtlich erfolgen? Um die Forschungsfrage zu beantworten, wurde eine systematische Literaturrecherche durchgeführt. Die Auswertung der Literatur zeigt, dass die Erfüllung der gesetzlichen Aufbewahrungspflichten auch datenschutzkonform möglich ist. Aus datenschutzrechtlicher Sicht ist in diesem Kontext entscheidend, ob der Arbeitgeber das betriebliche E-Mail-Konto zu Zwecken der Privatnutzung erlaubt oder verbietet. Je nachdem, wofür sich der Arbeitgeber entscheidet, variiert die Rechtslage der E-Mail-Aufbewahrung.
As the world becomes more and more digital every day companies see the need to change to prepare for digital disruptions, which could become a major threat to them. Especially this affects the internal IT of these companies. In that course the concept of a bimodal IT came up. It splits the IT into two differently working teams. The first team is responsible for the daily business and works traditionally, the second team focuses on new trends and products and works agilely. With this approach, companies aim to strengthen their core IT and at the same time become more digital. This paper will give a systematic review of the discussion that has occurred over the last few years in literature. It will point out advantages as well as disadvantages and show different concepts companies can use to adopt this concept within their businesses.
The DevOps approach is a connection of development and operation teams in software development to supply IT solutions fast into the market. The performed systematic literature review selects 58 out of 842 publications. The number of publications has increased in the recent years as of the importance of DevOps for enterprises rises. For a better understanding the selected literature is categorized in three top (determinants, concepts, outcomes) and each of them in 3 subcategories (context, definition, enablers; collaboration, practices, standards; benefits, challenges, trends). The systematic mapping creates a wide understanding of the term DevOps and suggests a further research on standards in DevOps and the adaptation to large enterprises. Furthermore, future research is needed to discuss DevOps with respects to trends like cloud computing and artificial intelligence.
Determining the progress of an IT project is a main duty of project managers in practice. However, the techniques that are commonly used in practice often mislead to a wrong determination of the status of a project. This paper reviews literature dealing with indicators that can be used to determine the progress of an IT project.
We will name these indicators and describe a general approach to identify them in the context of a project. Furthermore, it will be described what measures need to be taken in order to use the identified indicators within the project to determine the current progress of the project.
Therefore, techniques to monitor and report the indicators, as well as requirements to allow monitoring and reporting, will be described.
The collaborative environment of the human being has changed since the digital age. In the past, the best communication was face-to-face communication. Today there are Internet-based possibilities that should not be missing in any business. And tomorrow, people will have to adapt themselves to a collaborative environment in which technology becomes an intelligent cooperation partner. Intelligent technology offers considerable opportunities for collaboration in companies. In this paper, I focus on the development of possibilities for internal collaboration and examine the effects that intelligent technologies can have on tomorrow's collaboration.
The approach of BizDevOps has raised awareness in the recent years due to its benefits in the changing markets influenced by the Digital Transformation. In interdisciplinary teams, employees from the fields of Business (Biz), Development (Dev) and Operations (Ops) work together following agile principles. The present paper reviews 13 selected papers regarding the topic of BizDevOps and provides a State-of-the-Art overview of BizDevOps, as well as its success factors when being implemented at a company. The results are clustered into the categories of Context and Success Factors, each containing 3 subcategories (Context: Digital Transformation, Definitions, Benefits; Success Factors: Organizational, Cultural and Technical). The paper points out the relevance of BizDevOps for companies and suggests further research in developing measurements to compare traditional approaches with the BizDevOps approach.
The Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) has its origins in the 1960s and is meanwhile a topic of high maturity. EAM aligns business and IT leads to high complexity and slow adaptions to changes. It grants a holistic overview and organization’s strategy is part of EAM. More than 50 frameworks exist to support Enterprise Architects in their work of handling the complexity. In the last years, Digital Transformation affects more and more industries and organizations fight to stay competitive. Those changes affect IT landscapes, business and IT processes as well as business culture. As a result, complexity rises and the role of EAM needs to change.
The purpose of this literature review is to create an overview on EAM and its influence towards Digital Transformation. This includes three main-aspects of EAM regarding Digital Transformation: Barriers, drivers and new requirements from which organizations can benefit for their digital transformation.
Digital transformation became one of the critical success factors in doing business. The Chief Digital Officer (CDO) was introduced into the C-level in recent years and is seen as a specialist for the digital transformation (DT) of an organization. Due to the fast-growing development of this new position, the exact definition of its activities is still insufficient. The role of a CDO has several meanings for different organizations. The purpose of this literature review is to give an overview of the CDO-role by analyzing the definition, the reasons to adopt a CDO-role, the internal characteristics (CDO-types, interfaces, and impact on other roles), the internal characteristics (responsibilities, obligations, rights, competencies) and to answer the research question if the CDO will be established in long term in organizations.
This paper reviews the current literature for the software vendor selection method Proof of Concept. It covers the description of the main contents of Proof of Concepts, the types of literature that provide information about this topic and the reported best practises. Furthermore, the different approaches described by the literature are summarized as well as the advantages and disadvantages. As a result, the paper shows the advantages overweight and indicates that the method has a good potential to be used more often.
The role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has changed over the years. The CIO used to be the head of the IT sector and was responsible for all supporting information technologies (IT). His responsibilities were limited and the main task was to provide the supporting IT to the CEO and other management members. In the past few decades technology has become more prevalent and sophisticated within organisations. The meaning of technology has changed from a supporting function to one of the crucial elements of organisation’s services. This led to a change of the supporting CIO role to one of the leading functions within an organisation. The present paper reviews 28 papers regarding to the different roles of the CIO and shows the development over time. The roles are clustered and inserted in a schema to identify what roles are described in the literature. The paper points out the importance of the CIO, the multiplicity of his roles within an organisation and how these roles developed.
The role of the IT infrastructure for a company’s performance has become increasingly important in recent years. The reason for this is a growth in new digital opportunities, which leads to rapid market development and adaptation of customer needs. In order to stay in the market and gain a competitive advantage, incumbents must restructure and generally drive the digital transformation. The indispensable basis for this transformation is a new IT infrastructure that serves two main purposes. On one hand, a stable and reliable operational IT backbone must be established for efficient core processes. On the other hand, a digital IT backbone is also required to enable rapid innovation and adaptation without risk to the core IT. This paper establishes the superior framework from a management perspective that needs to be considered when transforming an IT infrastructure into these two separate backbones. It additionally explains to what extent a suitable combination of both systems brings further advantages.
As the business environment is becoming more and more unpredictable through the digital transformation, new business forms or intensified competition, the ability to develop innovations in a continuous process to sustain the competitive advantage and be viable in the market has gained on relevance for companies. The challenge for many enterprises is to bring out successful innovations effectively and efficiently. A reliable approach with suitable metrics to control innovation is a crucial factor for that. The present paper reviews 16 selected papers regarding the topic of successful innovation controlling frameworks and associated metrics. The results of the frameworks are categorized by their static or process view on the controlling approach. General requirements on metrics are outlined as a guideline and the metrics are clustered in input-, process-, output- and customer-oriented-metrics. The review points out, how innovation control can be done by different approaches and outlines that the right set of metrics is depending on several individual factors in the company. In conclusion the paper underlines the main commonalities and differences of the approaches and makes suggestions for the implication in the management practice and for further research.
As part of a seminar in IT Management in Master at the Wedel University of Applied Sciences, this paper examines the changes of the job titles and skill set requirements of IT professionals during the last three decades from 1990 to 2020. Based on a systematic review of the literatures published over the last 30 years, the results from various research methods are synthesized to get a comprehensive composition of required skills from Information Technology (IT) professionals. The requirements are divided into technical, technological, business and organizational, and interpersonal skills. Previous researches have shown that a consistent increase in the number of skill requirements, especially in the soft skill division, are noticeable in today’s employment market. The overall purpose of this paper is to crystallize the demanded personnel with the skill requirements and knowledge during the digital age so that educators and managers are provided with relevant information. In the end, some implications for practice purposes are suggested.
This paper presents the current state of academic research on Robotic Process Automation and selects 24 out of 896 publications. I divided the founded literature into the categories benefits, limits, implementation, and upcoming trend for a better overview. In the implementation part, current concepts were brought into an overall context. Furthermore, future research is needed to summarize all current research approaches of RPA, as this paper is limited to the basics.
In the era of big data, an increasing amount of companies try to establish the new role of an executive chief analytics officer (CAO). The CAO plays a crucial role in the transformation process from traditional businesses into a data-driven organisation. It is important to adapt to today’s development and focus on the strategic advantages when implementing data analytics throughout the whole organization. That is why a c-level position needs to be created while his primary job is to focus on the meaningful use of data within the organisation. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the state of the art of literature about the CAO’s role as well as the necessity and added value of the chief.
Agile methodologies have long been successfully applied to smaller software development projects with limited team sizes. In recent years, some firms have started to transfer agile methodologies to the whole organization. However, large-scale agile transformations are challenging and require a comprehensive view of cultural, operational, and strategic aspects. This paper systematically reviews available large-scale agile practices from the literature and provides a holistic overview of different large-scale agile practices. In total, four practice categories, 11 practices, and 19 example concepts were found. The categories are organized in a framework and serve as a possible entry point for researchers and managers to approach the topic of largescale agile development more efficiently and economically.
Information technology is rapidly developing, making it difficult for companies to keep up with digital knowledge and skills. At the same time, disruptive and innovative business models are entering the market, forcing more traditional companies to innovate and digitalize. As a result, many companies today rely on the expertise of IT consultants to stay competitive. This literature review aims to provide a general overview of the IT consulting market, the offered services and job requirements. 20 out of 473 publications have been selected for a detailed analysis. The results are structured in three categories (market situation, services, employees), focusing on offered services. In total, ten practice areas have been discovered and combined into a framework. This framework serves as an overview of current IT consulting services to support managers in making business decisions. Furthermore, it can be used as the foundation of further research.
For decades, business–IT alignment has been considered the prevailing framework for aligning IT strategy with business strategy. With the emergence of new, digital technologies, this perspective has been increasingly questioned by researchers and practitioners. The ubiquity of new, digital technologies finally led to the mindset that simply aligning IT strategy with business was no longer sufficient to continue gaining competitive advantage in an increasingly digitized world. Hence, the concept of digital business strategy (DBS) emerged, which calls for the fusion of IT and business strategy, making IT an integral part of business. This evolution not only affects businesses but entire industries, as well as the way value is created and captured. Through conducting a literature review, I aim to assess the current state of research on DBS in order to develop a foundational framework that includes its key dimensions. Furthermore, research gaps are identified, and a research agenda is developed to suggest possible paths for future research.
AutoML automated machine learning (ML). Machine learning techniques are finding an application in more and more fields and companies. Experts are supported and users with little experience can now be addressed. In this paper, 31 out of 763 publications are selected. The results are classified into the three categories: “General”, “Types of AutoML” and “Technical”. The keyword “General” summarises the advantages and challenges. The extent to which AutoML is automated is described in more detail in the “Types of AutoML” category, which is further subdivided into partial automation, full automation and conscious integration of people into the process. This is followed in the next category by a basic technical explanation of the process. The paper shows the relevance of AutoML for companies and the future need of research to specify issues such as transparency.
One of the key trends and most popular concepts in entrepreneurship is the Lean Startup founded by Eric Ries. The Lean Startup method aims to reduce uncertainties for start-ups and established companies in product development and creating business models by linking the application of lean thinking to the process of innovation. Followed by an enormous amount of attention and the growing relevance in practice, the academic interest in the Lean Startup increased over the last years. This paper systematically reviews the current state of academic literature on The Lean Startup and selects 23 scientific papers and articles. The identified literature is categorized by underlying frameworks, the combination with other approaches and critical success factors for implementation. Furthermore, commonalities and differences in findings as well as implications and further research are discussed.
It is becoming increasingly complicated for IT operations to manage the vast amounts of data generated by modern IT systems. The use of Artificial Intelligence for IT operations (AIOps) counteracts this problem. This study aims to determine the state of the art of literature on AIOps. Therefore, I systematically evaluate the research findings in a multi-stage process. The results of 15 selected papers are compiled, analyzed, and thematically structured. The state of the studies is discussed with respect to the functions, implementations, tools, benefits, challenges, and trends of AIOps. The paper highlights anomalies and gaps in current literature. The results of this paper provide a synthesized overview for further research.
To stay relevant in the market and secure competitive advantages, the importance of strategic technological alignment for various IT companies grows rapidly. As a result, IT strategy occupies a major position in many companies. Over the years, the topic has been picked up more and more frequently in literature, which has also led to different uses of terms, definitions, and content. This systematic literature review examines a total of 42 publications in the period from 1985 to 2021 to obtain a comprehensive overview starting from the beginning of strategic technological orientation in companies. The topic is structured by dividing it into three main categories: Understanding, Development of IT strategies and Outcomes. To provide a deeper insight, an additional distinction into nine sub-categories was made (Definitions, Terms, Importance over time, Link to business strategy, strategy plan, Implementation, Post-Implementation, Benefits, Challenges). Furthermore, an outlook for future research will be given.
In the age of digital transformation, the topic of data driven decision making became increasingly more relevant. Empirics show that companies who use DDDM as part of both daily business operations and strategic decisions have an overall better financial performance. For companies to base their decisions on data, this data first needs to be acquired in the correct manner and cost efficiently. Although the topic on DDDM and data strategies have been sufficiently researched, the actual strategic data acquisition has very little holistic research papers. This review therefore summarizes the state-of-the-art literature on the components of the data collection process to give an overview on the topic as a whole. It covers the definitions, data sources and data usage possibilities. The review shows that there are a variety of sources and usage possibilities that are cost intensive and complex, so companies should carefully consider which goals they want to achieve with the data.
“Innovate or Die” a quote declared by Peter Drucker is more relevant than ever. The world is facing challenges on multiple sides. Be it climate change, pandemics, or the global supply chain collapse. Companies suffer from these global trends. Their only way to survive is to innovate and adapt their products or services to the constantly changing needs of their customers. Design thinking has been an approach for generating innovation that is gaining popularity.
But how can companies apply design thinking to their organization? This systematic literature review focuses on giving an overview over three key fundamental “building blocks” to successfully implement and use design thinking. The blocks were identified, named, explained, and set in relation in the following paper. The goal is to provide guidance to managers planning to implement design thinking into their organization.
It is widely recognized that digitization has a significant impact on the business environment. Digital disruption is turning entire industries upside down and posing new challenges for almost all companies. To remain competitive companies are required to transform their business strategies. Although Digital Leadership (DL) plays an important role in overcoming these challenges most organizations are not aware of its importance. As the current literature does not provide a comprehensive understanding of DL, there is also a lack of understanding of what digital leadership capabilities are required to meet the challenges of digitization in organizations of the digital age. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explore the capabilities of DL by undertaking more in depth-research by conducting a systematic literature review. Using a grounded theory approach, the final analysis of 30 papers identifies capabilities along the dimensions of mindset, behavior, culture, and technology with corresponding subcategories. This study raises awareness of DL capabilities, especially among those with leadership and decision-making responsibilities and contributes to both IS and organizational research.
Process mining has long been successfully used in businesses. However, some challenges remain and new use cases for process mining emerge. This literature review highlights the challenges process mining is facing today using state-of-the-art literature. The paper rises predictions for promising topics of research in the future. Along with the topics of data, processes, use of process mining, and people this paper provides insights into process mining today. These categories serve as a possible reference frame for practitioners to update their use of process mining and start new process mining initiatives.
Online education methods have become even more relevant due to digitalization and the Covid-19 pandemic. Different educational institutions have used different methods. This paper consolidates the state of the research on online education methods based on a systematic review. Concepts for the classification of the different methods were created.